These 30+ Amazon AWS Interview Questions are specially shortlisted by SV Soft Solutions Team. Prepare these 30+ Amazon AWS FAQs Questions Answers for your upcoming AWS job interview.
AWS stands for Amazon Web Services. It is a service which is provided by the Amazon that uses distributed IT infrastructure to provide different IT resources on demand. It provides different services such as an infrastructure as a service, platform as a service, and software as a service.
An Amazon EC2 uses public key cryptography which is used to encrypt and decrypt the login information. In public key cryptography, the public key is used to encrypt the information while at the receiver’s side, a private key is used to decrypt the information. The combination of a public key and the private key is known as key-pairs. Key-pairs allows you to access the instances securely.
There are four pricing models for EC2 instances:
- On-Demand instance
- On-Demand pricing is also known as pay-as-you-go. Pay-as-you-go is a pricing model that allows you to pay only for those resources that you use.
- You need to pay for the compute capacity by per hour or per second that depends on which instances you run.
- On-Demand instance does not require any upfront payments.
- While using On-Demand instance, you can increase or decrease the compute capacity based on the requirements of your application.
- On-Demand instances are recommended for those applications which are of short term and unpredictable workloads.
- Users that want low cost and flexibility on EC2 instances with no upfront payments.
- On-Demand instances are used for those applications which have been developed or tested on EC2 for the first time.
- Reserved instance
- Reserved instance is the second most important pricing model that reduces the overall cost of your AWS environment by making an upfront payment for those services that you know will be used in the future.
- Reserved instances provide a discount of up to 75% as compared to On-Demand instance.
- Reserved instances are assigned to a specific Availability zone that reserves the compute capacity for you so that you can use whenever you need.
- Reserved instances are mainly recommended for those applications that have steady state and require reserve capacity.
- Customers who want to use the EC2 over 1 to 3 term can use the reserved instance to reduce the overall computing costs.
- Spot instance
- Spot instances consist of unused capacity which is available at a highly discounted rate.
- It offers up to 90% discount as compared to On-Demand instance.
- Spot instances are mainly recommended for those applications which have flexible start and end times.
- It is useful when applications require computing capacity at a very low price.
- It is useful when applications require additional amount of computing capacity at an urgent need.
- Dedicated Hosts
It is a physical EC2 server which is dedicated for your use. It reduces the overall costs by providing you a VPC that comprise of a dedicated hardware.
By default, you can create up to 100 buckets.
CloudFront is a computer delivery network which consists of distributed servers that delivers web pages and web content to a user based on the geographic locations of a user. If you want to know more about the CloudFront, then click on the link shown below:
Elastic Block Store is a service that provides a persistent block storage volume for use with EC2 instances in aws cloud. EBS volume is automatically replicated within its availability zone to prevent from the component failure. It offers high durability, availability, and low-latency performance required to run your workloads
AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image. It is a virtual image used to create a virtual machine within an EC2 instance.
EIP (Elastic IP address) is a service provided by an EC2 instance. It is basically a static IP address attached to an EC2 instance. This address is associated with your AWS account not with an EC2 instance. You can also disassociate your EIP address from your EC2 instance and map it to another EC2 instance in your AWS account.
S3 bucket can be secured in two ways:
- ACL (Access Control List)
ACL is used to manage the access of resources to buckets and objects. An object of each bucket is associated with ACL. It defines which AWS accounts have granted access and the type of access. When a user sends the request for a resource, then its corresponding ACL will be checked to verify whether the user has granted access to the resource or not.
When you create a bucket, then Amazon S3 creates a default ACL which provides a full control over the AWS resources.
- Bucket Policies
Bucket policies are only applied to S3 bucket. Bucket policies define what actions are allowed or denied. Bucket policies are attached to the bucket not to an S3 object but the permissions define in the bucket policy are applied to all the objects in S3 bucket.
The following are the main elements of Bucket policy:
A Sid determines what the policy will do. For example, if an action that needs to be performed is adding a new user to an Access Control List (ACL), then the Sid would be AddCannedAcl. If the policy is defined to evaluate IP addresses, then the Sid would be IPAllow.
- Effect: An effect defines an action after applying the policy. The action could be either to allow an action or to deny an action.
A Principal is a string that determines to whom the policy is applied. If we set the principal string as ‘*’, then the policy is applied to everyone, but it is also possible that you can specify individual AWS account.
An Action is what happens when the policy is applied. For example, s3:Getobject is an action that allows to read object data.
The Resource is a S3 bucket to which the statement is applied. You cannot enter a simply bucket name, you need to specify the bucket name in a specific format. For example, the bucket name is javatpoint-bucket, then the resource would be written as “arn:aws:s3″”javatpoint-bucket/*”.
Following are the different types of instances:
- General Purpose Instance type
General purpose instances are the instances mainly used by the companies. There are two types of General Purpose instances: Fixed performance (eg. M3 and M4) and Burstable performance (eg. T2). Some of the sectors use this instance such as Development environments, build servers, code repositories, low traffic websites and web applications, micro-services, etc.
Following are the General Purpose Instances:
- T2 instances: T2 instances are the instances that receive CPU credits when they are sitting idle and they use the CPU credits when they are active. These instances do not use the CPU very consistently, but it has the ability to burst to a higher level when required by the workload.
- M4 instances: M4 instances are the latest version of General purpose instances. These instances are the best choice for managing memory and network resources. They are mainly used for the applications where demand for the micro-servers is high.
- M3 instances: M3 instance is a prior version of M4. M4 instance is mainly used for data processing tasks which require additional memory, caching fleets, running backend servers for SAP and other enterprise applications.
- Compute Optimized Instance type
Compute Optimized Instance type consists of two instance types: C4 and C3.
- C3 instance: C3 instances are mainly used for those applications which require very high CPU usage. These instances are mainly recommended for those applications that require high computing power as these instances offer high performing processors.
- C4 instance: C4 instance is the next version of C3 instance. C4 instance is mainly used for those applications that require high computing power. It consists of Intel E5-2666 v3 processor and use Hardware virtualization. According to the AWS specifications, C4 instances can run at a speed of 2.9 GHz, and can reach to a clock speed of 3.5 GHz.
- GPU Instances
GPU instances consist of G2 instances which are mainly used for gaming applications that require heavy graphics and 3D application data streaming. It consists of a high-performance NVIDIA GPU which is suitable for audio, video, 3D imaging, and graphics streaming kinds of applications. To run the GPU instances, NVIDIA drivers must be installed.
- Memory Optimized Instances
Memory Optimized Instances consists of R3 instances which are designed for memory- intensive applications. R3 instance consists of latest Intel Xeon lvy Bridge processor. R3 instance can sustain a memory bandwidth of 63000 MB/sec. R3 instance offers a high- performance databases, In memory analytics, and distributed memory caches.
- Storage Optimized Instances
Storage Optimized Instances consist of two types of instances: I2 and D2 instances.
- I2 instance: It provides heavy SSD which is required for the sequential read, and write access to a large data sets. It also provides random I/O operations to your applications. It is best suited for the applications such as high-frequency online transaction processing systems, relational databases, NoSQL databases, Cache for in-memory databases, Data warehousing applications and Low latency Ad- Tech serving applications.
- D2 instance: D2 instance is a dense storage instance which consists of a high-frequency Intel Xeon E5-2676v3 processors, HDD storage, High disk throughput.
Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of aws cloud.
5 elastic IP addresses that you can create per AWS account per region.
VPC stands for Virtual Private Cloud. It is an isolated area of the AWS cloud where you can launch AWS resources in a virtual network that you define. It provides a complete control on your virtual networking environment such as selection of an IP address, creation of subnets, configuration of route tables and network gateways.
NAT stands for Network Address Translation. It is an aws service that enables to connect an EC2 instance in private subnet to the internet or other AWS services.
Following are the different database types in RDS:
- Amazon Aurora
It is a database engine developed in RDS. Aurora database can run only on AWS infrastructure not like MySQL database which can be installed on any local device. It is a MySQL compatible relational database engine that combines the speed and availability of traditional databases with the open source databases.
- Postgre SQL
- PostgreSQL is an open source relational database for many developers and startups.
- It is easy to set up, operate, and can also scale PostgreSQL deployments in the cloud.
- You can also scale PostgreSQL deployments in minutes with cost-efficient.
- PostgreSQL database manages time-consuming administrative tasks such as PostgreSQL software installation, storage management, and backups for disaster recovery.
- It is an open source relational database.
- It is easy to set up, operate, and can also scale MySQL deployments in the cloud.
- By using Amazon RDS, you can deploy scalable MySQL servers in minutes with cost-efficient.
- It is an open source relational database created by the developers of MySQL.
- It is easy to set up, operate, and can also scale MariaDB server deployments in the cloud.
- By using Amazon RDS, you can deploy scalable MariaDB servers in minutes with cost-efficient.
- It frees you from managing administrative tasks such as backups, software patching, monitoring, scaling and replication.
- It is a relational database developed by Oracle.
- It is easy to set up, operate, and can also scale Oracle database deployments in the cloud.
- You can deploy multiple editions of Oracle in minutes with cost-efficient.
- It frees you from managing administrative tasks such as backups, software patching, monitoring, scaling and replication.
- You can run Oracle under two different licensing models: “License Included” and “Bring Your Own License (BYOL)”. In License Included service model, you do need have to purchase the Oracle license separately as it is already licensed by AWS. In this model, pricing starts at $0.04 per hour. If you already have purchased the Oracle license, then you can use the BYOL model to run Oracle databases in Amazon RDS with pricing starts at $0.025 per hour.
- SQL Server
- SQL Server is a relational database developed by Microsoft.
- It is easy to set up, operate, and can also scale SQL Server deployments in the cloud.
- You can deploy multiple editions of SQL Server in minutes with cost-efficient.
SNS stands for Simple Notification Service. It is a web service that provides highly scalable, cost-effective, and flexible capability to publish messages from an application and sends them to other applications. It is a way of sending messages.
The maximum size of message in SQS IS 256 KB.
There are two types of access:
- Console Access
If the user wants to use the Console Access, a user needs to create a password to login in an AWS account.
- Programmatic access
If you use the Programmatic access, an IAM user need to make an API calls. An API call can be made by using the AWS CLI. To use the AWS CLI, you need to create an access key ID and secret access key.
- It is a storage service where it can store any amount of data.
- It consists of a REST interface and uses secure HMAC-SHA1 authentication keys.
- It is a web service used for hosting an application.
- It is a virtual machine which can run either Linux or Windows and can also run the applications such as PHP, Python, Apache or other databases.
You can have 200 subnets per VPC.
An Amazon Elasticache is a web service allows you to easily deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory cache in the cloud.
An Amazon EMR stands for Amazon Elastic MapReduce. It is a web service used to process the large amounts of data in a cost-effective manner. The central component of an Amazon EMR is a cluster. Each cluster is a collection of EC2 instances and an instance in a cluster is known as node. Each node has a specified role attached to it known as a node type, and an Amazon EMR installs the software components on node type.
Following are the node types:
- Master node
A master node runs the software components to distribute the tasks among other nodes in a cluster. It tracks the status of all the tasks and monitors the health of a cluster.
- Core node
A core node runs the software components to process the tasks and stores the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Multi-node clusters will have at least one core node.
- Task node
A task node with software components processes the task but does not store the data in HDFS. Task nodes are optional.
Lifecycle hooks perform custom actions by pausing instances when Autoscaling group launches or terminates an instance. When instance is paused, an instance moves in a wait state. By default, an instance remains in a wait state for 1 hour. For example, when you launch a new instance, lifecycle hooks pauses an instance. When you pause an instance, you can install a software on it or make sure that an instance is completely ready to receive the traffic.
An Amazon Transfer Acceleration Service is a service that enables fast and secure transfer of data between your client and S3 bucket.
Vertical scaling means scaling the compute power such as CPU, RAM to your existing machine while horizontal scaling means adding more machines to your server or database. Horizontal scaling means increasing the number of nodes, and distributing the tasks among different nodes.
The following are the main components of AWS are:
- Simple Storage Service: S3 is a service of aws that stores the files. It is object-based storage, i.e., you can store the images, word files, pdf files, etc. The size of the file that can be stored in S3 is from 0 Bytes to 5 TB. It is an unlimited storage medium, i.e., you can store the data as much you want. S3 contains a bucket which stores the files. A bucket is like a folder that stores the files. It is a universal namespace, i.e., name must be unique globally. Each bucket must have a unique name to generate the unique DNS address.
- Elastic Compute Cloud: Elastic Compute Cloud is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. You can scale the compute capacity up and down as per the computing requirement changes. It changes the economics of computing by allowing you to pay only for the resources that you actually use.
- Elastic Block Store: It provides a persistent block storage volume for use with EC2 instances in aws cloud. EBS volume is automatically replicated within its availability zone to prevent the component failure. It offers high durability, availability, and low-latency performance required to run your workloads.
- CloudWatch: It is a service which is used to monitor all the AWS resources and applications that you run in real time. It collects and tracks the metrics that measure your resources and applications.
- Identity Access Management: It is a service of aws used to manage users and their level of access to the aws management console. It is used to set users, permissions, and roles. It allows you to grant permission to the different parts of the aws platform.
- Simple Email Service: Amazon Simple Email Service is a cloud-based email sending service that helps digital marketers and application developers to send marketing, notification, and transactional emails. This service is very reliable and cost-effective for the businesses of all the sizes that want to keep in touch with the customers.
- Route53: It is a highly available and scalable DNS (Domain Name Service) service. It provides a reliable and cost-effective way for the developers and businesses to route end users to internet applications by translating domain names into numeric IP addresses.
S3 is a storage service in aws that allows you to store the vast amount of data.
AWS Lambda is a compute service that runs your code without managing servers. Lambda function runs your code whenever needed. You need to pay only when your code is running.
Cross Region Replication is a service available in aws that enables to replicate the data from one bucket to another bucket which could be in a same or different region. It provides asynchronous copying of objects, i.e., objects are not copied immediately.
Regions: A region is a geographical area which consists of 2 or more availability zones. A region is a collection of data centers which are completely isolated from other regions.
Availability zones: An Availability zone is a data center that can be somewhere in the country or city. Data center can have multiple servers, switches, firewalls, load balancing. The things through which you can interact with the cloud reside inside the Data center.
The minimum size of an object that you can store in S3 is 0 bytes and the maximum size of an object that you can store in S3 is 5 TB.
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